Skip Nav

Welcome to the Purdue Writing Lab

[Poll name]

❶End this element with a period.

English Language Resources

What Are Some Free Resources to Help With Writing Essays?
RATE THIS ARTICLE
Can You Find Sample APA Style Literature Reviews Online?

For more information about services for the Purdue University community, including one-to-one consultations, ESL conversation groups and workshops, please visit the Writing Lab site. The Purdue University Writing Lab and Purdue Online Writing Lab OWL assist clients in their development as writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus consultations, online participation, and community engagement.

The Purdue OWL offers global support through online reference materials and services. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Practical Considerations Researching Programs: Drafting Your Statement Statements of Purpose: The Basics In-Text Citations: Basic Rules Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located.

For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container.

The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

Accessed 27 May In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Current Conditions and Future Directions. The International Online-Only Journal, vol. Accessed 20 May The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date.

When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode. However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date.

The location of an online work should include a URL. The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting.

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time. Accessed 4 May As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A.

Wiley Online Library, doi: The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited. When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide your reader with a reference without interrupting your text.

Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in .

Privacy FAQs

The Purdue Online Writing Lab Welcome to the Purdue OWL. We offer free resources including Writing and Teaching Writing, Research, Grammar and Mechanics, Style Guides, ESL (English as a Second Language), and Job Search and Professional Writing.

About Our Ads

The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Welcome to the Writing Lab at Purdue. Welcome to the Purdue Writing Lab web page. These pages contain information for Purdue students, faculty and staff using the Writing Lab on the West Lafayette campus.

Cookie Info

The Writing Lab at Purdue (in-person consultations) Purdue University students, faculty, and staff at our West Lafayette, IN campus may access this area for information on the award-winning Purdue Writing coolgfile29k.gq area includes Writing Lab hours, services, and contact information. Purdue Online Writing Lab. The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) is one of the best online resources for those wishing to improve their written English, be they studying English as a first or second language.