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❶Here are the possible variables that could have been investigated in this experiment.

## Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

This will give me a varied set of results. If any of the other variables were not kept the same then it would not be a fair test, for example if one of the potato chips was a different length to the rest this would affect the results and therefore would conclude in an unfair test.

The mass of the potato chips will be measured before and after the experiment. And will be placed in a different type of solution 3 peaces of potato chips in different test tubes of the same solution to make my results more reliable. The change of salt concentration affects the osmosis pressure in the potato. The bigger concentration of salt in the water the more water the potato will reduce from it self so the water will balance what is called osmosis.

Eventually the potato will shrink and become little but if the concentration is low inside the potato it will absorb water in it and become bigger. The molecules will continue to diffuse until the area in which the molecules are found reaches a state of equilibrium, meaning that the molecules are randomly distributed throughout an object, with no area having a higher or lower concentration than any other. For this particular investigation I think that the lower the concentration of the salt solution in the test tube the larger the mass of the potato will be.

This is because the water molecules pass from a high concentration, In the water itself, to a low concentration, In the potato chip.

Therefore, the chips in higher water concentrations will have a larger mass than in higher salt concentrations. The independent variables I have chosen to investigate is how different concentration of salt affects the mass of a potato.

As the concentration of salt increases, the mass of potato decreases and as the concentration of salt decreases, the mass of the potato increases. This is because during osmosis, water diffuses from and area of high concentration to a low concentration. To investigate the effect of the change of concentration of salt solution on a sample of potato. The question that I will be investigating is whether the concentration of the salt solution affect the amount of water gained or lost by vegetables.

Before starting my final experiment I will first do a series of preliminary experiments to help me prepare and make decisions regarding how I will go about completing the main experiment. Then I will construct a table to show my results. As shown on the next page. I will then carry out checks to make sure my result are accurate by making the experiment fair.

I will collect all the equipment needed for this experiment. I am going to place a potato on a board. I am going to use a potato corer to core out a potato tissue. I will measure the size and cut it too 4cm. I will also weigh the potato pieces after they have been cut and record the data onto my table. Repeat this procedure seventeen more times to have eighteen potato tissues. I am cutting the potato 4cm using a knife.

After 24 hours I will take them out of the test tubes, and clean them gently with a paper towel. I am going to measure the weight of the potato chips, in their corresponding order. Then I will again collect this data on to the table I have planned. Method containing and result I will then, pour the different concentration of salt solution into each test-tube and place a cored potato tissue and measure it and weight it using a ruler and a scale and record the data results on the table.

I will leave it there for 24 hours. I will take out the potato tissues, weight it using a scale, and record the results on to the table. I will then compare the results on the table and then put or show the results on a graph I will plot the points above the osmotic if the trend or change is positive and vice-verse for negative under osmotic points. I already know that osmosis is a process when a substance usually solution like salt or sugar dissolved in water, the solute attract some water molecules, and they cannot move around thus decreasing the concentration of water molecules.

If there is a partially preamble membrane containing pure water, and that membrane is surrounded by solution with high water potential the water, the pure water would diffuse into the solution as the water molecules diffuse faster into pores of the membrane, as they are smaller than salt solution molecules.

The salt solution will diffuse more slowly as they are bigger and take more time thus less salt molecules diffusing as the pores are not big enough. This osmosis this is the same for vice-verse. In my case, the potato tissues cell semi-permeable has cell sap very dilute salt and chemical solution inside its vacuole.

It also has cell sap and reserved chemicals. The potato cell also has a cell walls that control torpor of the potato cell. If there is higher percentage of salt solution, which has a lower water potential, then osmosis will take place. This means that the water diffuses out of the vacuole into the salt solution and the vacuole gets smaller.

Thus, the cell wall and cell membrane will collapse or shrink as there is no pressure being exerted on the membrane or the walls or there is less pressure. However, again using the osmosis theory. When there is high water potential in the salt solution outside than the vacuole inside the potato solution that the water molecules from the sugar solution will diffuse into the potato, and make it more turgid as there is more pressure being exerted on the cell membrane and cell wall as the vacuole will be bigger with more water molecules.

This means that where osmosis has taken place and the salt solution has a higher water potential solution the potato tissue will be even shorter and lighter, as in the solution there will be less water molecules moving freely and these are the water molecules which diffuse thus meaning that there will be less water molecules diffusing into potato cell membrane.

Moreover the water molecule in potato majority will diffuse out make even less turgid. I know a potato cell will be or turgid when there is more water as vacuole and cell membrane can expend as it is confiding by cell wall so it exert pressure on it thus makes it more strong and turgid. I predict that if you increase the concentration of salt solution, you will decrease the mass of the potato chip.

Using this background information, I can make firm prediction using the osmosis theory primarily. I think using different concentration I will get a varied result. The potato cell which has been in lower concentration of water will make the potato chops longer and more turgid. When potato chips is put in higher concentrations of salt solution, osmosis will take place and the potato chips will generally become more flabby, soft and flaccid.

Since the vacuole in the potato cell contain much more water the potato chip in general will be heavy if the sugar solution has lower concentration. However if the salt solution is higher that the potato chip then the potato chip will be lighter, as the potato cell will have loss mass trough losing water though osmosis. Also my preliminary results may have been more inaccurate as only carried out the experiment once and in the final experiment I repeated it 3 times to improve its accuracy.

Full Risk assessment and fair test: I am going to try to make my experiment fair as possible through many measures. To make my experiment fairer I will make sure, When I put the potato pieces inside the test tubes that they are all 4cm long.

In addition, they are taken out of the test tube in the same order they went in. Also, the same volume of 4cm of salt solution will go in each test tube regardless of salt concentration.

I will wear goggles during the activity part of the experiment to protect my eyes. I will cut and core the potato on a board. I will be more careful not to cut anything or myself.

I will put different test tubes containing the salt solution and the potato chip into beaker with water. This will help keep steady temperature through the experiment as water influenced environment will be less affected by sudden temperature changes. I will use the same size borer and pencil. When the experiment are done, I will place the potato chips on paper towel to absorb excess salt solution and then weight it. The experiment will last then 24 hours, as I do not want any bacteria to spread or damage the semi-permeable membrane.

I am taking these precautions to make my results more accurate as well. The potato chips always be 4 cm long before they go in and the same volume of salt solution will be used the concentration will vary.

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- Investigate the Rate of Osmosis in Different Vegetables (Carrot, Potato, Swede, Parsnip and Sweet Potato) In this coursework experiment I plan to find the rate of osmosis in different vegetables (Carrot, Potato, Swede, Parsnip and Sweet Potato).